The sample papers show the format students should use to submit a course assignment and that authors should use to submit a manuscript for publication in a professional journal. (https://doi.org/10.1037/stl0000171). They are designed to be used together and are not intended to be used separately or as stand alone modules August 2014 . Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th Edition PDF Free Download. That is, the first line of the reference is not indented but all subsequent lines are. Psychological literature—Publishing—Handbooks, manuals, etc. Editorial: Evidence-based guidelines for avoiding the most common APA errors in journal article submissions. For example, the term sexual orientation should be used instead of sexual preference because people do not generally experience their orientation as a “preference,” nor is it as easily changeable as this term suggests (APA Committee on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns Joint Task Force on Guidelines for Psychotherapy With Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients, 2000). For example, in an article on the effect of cell phone usage on driving ability, the writer might cite official statistics on the number of cell phone–related accidents that occur each year. Location: Publisher. Following are several features of APA-style writing and the scientific values or assumptions they reflect. American Psychological Association, Committee on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns Joint Task Force on Guidelines for Psychotherapy With Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients. It has 54 divisions—interest groups for different subspecialties of psychology … The only exceptions are for words that are proper nouns or adjectives (e.g., “Freudian”) or if there is a subtitle, in which case the first word of the subtitle is also capitalized. The title should clearly and concisely (in about 12 words or fewer) communicate the primary variables and research questions. Although many people believe that women are more talkative than men, Mehl, Vazire, Ramirez-Esparza, Slatcher, and Pennebaker (2007) found essentially no difference in the number of words spoken by male and female college students. Fourth, the year follows immediately after the final author’s name. (year). Alright, here you will be able to access the free PDF download of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th Edition PDF using direct links mentioned at the end of this article. There are many references and reference citations. American Psychological Association (APA) Guide Sixth Edition, 2010 Basic Format of Paper 1. New York, NY: Hudson Street Press. We also offer these sample papers in Microsoft Word (.docx) file format without the annotations. It is commonly used for citing sources within the field of behavioral and social sciences.It is described in the style guide of the American Psychological Association (APA), which is titled the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. If you are writing or publishing an APA Style paper in another context (e.g., for a dissertation), check with your instructor or publisher for additional formatting guidelines. There is the organization of a research article, the high-level style that includes writing in a formal and straightforward way, and the low-level style that consists of many specific rules of grammar, spelling, formatting of references, and so on. The explosion of knowledge, references, and citations: Psychology’s unique response to a crisis. Quantitative professional paper template: Adapted from “Fake News, Fast and Slow: Deliberation Reduces Belief in False (but Not True) News Headlines,” by B. Bago, D. G. Rand, and G. Pennycook, 2020, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 149(8), pp. At the very end of the reference is the digital object identifier (DOI), which provides a permanent link to the location of the article on the Internet. Empirical research reports are organized with specific sections in a fixed order. Society for Couple and Family Psychology. For an edited book, the names of the editors appear with their first and middle initials followed by their last names (not the other way around)—with the abbreviation “Eds.” (or “Ed.,” if there is only one) appearing in parentheses immediately after the final editor’s name. Then identify five specific differences between how that description is written and how it would be written in APA style. 120–156), Boston, Psychological Research Press. The second way to cite an article or a book chapter is parenthetically—including the authors’ last names and the year of publication in parentheses following the idea that is being credited. Only the first word of the article title is capitalized. Here are some titles from recent issues of professional journals published by the … The focus of scientific research is on drawing general conclusions about the world, not on the personalities of particular researchers. The second approach works well when you are discussing a general idea and especially when you want to include multiple citations for the same idea. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) which is available at all UWS libraries. NOTES-to clarify some of the trickier points!. Social science literature—Publishing—Handbooks, manuals, etc. A. to consult for more information.. Annotated student sample paper (PDF, 2MB) Third, avoid objectifying research participants. It was later expanded and published as a book by the association and is now in its seventh edition (view the APA Style website online). It is a significant format for systematic and other publications, chiefly those within the social sciences. B. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.58.1.15. This is not only to avoid offending people—why would you want to offend people who are interested in your work?—but also for the sake of scientific objectivity and accuracy. APA style is a set of guidelines for writing in psychology and related fields. © 2020 American Psychological Association, 750 First St. NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242, Telephone: (800) 374-2721; (202) 336-5500, Annotated student sample paper (PDF, 2MB), Annotated professional sample paper (PDF, 3MB), Quantitative professional paper template (DOCX, 77KB), Qualitative professional paper template (DOCX, 71KB), Mixed methods professional paper template (DOCX, 68KB), Review professional paper template (DOCX, 112KB). In general, this includes phenomena discovered by other researchers, theories they have developed, hypotheses they have derived, and specific methods they have used (e.g., specific questionnaires or stimulus materials). Editor, B. The primary purpose of APA style is to facilitate scientific communication by promoting clarity of expression and by standardizing the organization and content of research articles and book chapters. (As in the rest of an APA-style manuscript, everything is double-spaced.) The previous edition of the Publication Manual strongly discouraged the use of the term subjects (except for nonhumans) and strongly encouraged the use of participants instead. Annual dues were set at three dollars, and the ﬁrst annual meeting, the ﬁrst major psychological conference in the world, was held in December of the same year. Check out this awesome Perfect Case Studies On Following The American Psychological Association’s Guidelines for writing techniques and actionable ideas. The general principles for avoiding biased language are fairly simple. Vang, C., Dumont, L. S., and Prescott, M. P. found that left-handed people have a stronger preference for abstract art than right-handed people (2006). This method of documentation is used in the field of psychology and other social sciences. The source of information used in a research article. It adopts a tone that is appropriate for communicating with professional colleagues—other researchers and practitioners—who share an interest in the topic. These guidelines are set down in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2006). It has its headquarters in Washington DC. This resource, revised according to the 7 th edition of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and … The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with over 121,000 members, including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students. The association is the largest in United States and combines scholars in different areas of psychology. American Psychological Association Recovery to Practice Initiative Curriculum: Reframing Psychology for the Emerging Health Care Environment 7. For example, “The students completed the questionnaire” is better than “The subjects were administered the questionnaire.” Note that this principle also makes for clearer, more engaging writing. (2000). Because science is a large-scale collaboration among researchers, references to the work of other researchers are extremely important. An additional point, which is not illustrated in these examples but is illustrated in the sample paper in Section 11.2 “Writing a Research Report in American Psychological Association (APA) Style”, is that the year only needs to be included the first time a particular work is cited in the same paragraph. With millions of copies sold worldwide in multiple … At the end of an APA-style article or book chapter is a list that contains references to all the works cited in the text (and only the works cited in the text). Journals Publishing Resource Center. ), Title of book (pp. The lands we are situated on are covered by the Williams Treaties and are the traditional territory of the Mississaugas, a branch of the greater Anishinaabeg Nation, including Algonquin, Ojibway, Odawa and Pottawatomi. What counts as an idea that must be cited? In contrast to the first way of citing a work, this way always includes the year—even when the citation is given multiple times in the same paragraph. A book produced by the APA containing standards for preparing manuscripts to be submitted for publication in order to facilitate scientific communication by promoting clarity of expression and standardizing the organization and content of articles and book chapters. Educational Psychology Quarterly, 23, 234–256. Bentley, M., Peerenboom, C. A., Hodge, F. W., Passano, E. B., Warren, H. C., & Washburn, M. F. (1929). This is an abbreviation for the Latin term et alia, which means “and others.” In APA style, if an article or a book chapter has more than two authors, you should include all their names when you first cite that work. In A. The authors’ names appear in the same order as on the article, which reflects the authors’ relative contributions to the research. It is not synonymous with “good writing” in general. This easy-to-use, comprehensive guide makes citing any source easy. The second level of APA style which includes guidelines for the clear expression of ideas through writing style. 44. This association can also promote the increase of my professional knowledge and skills, which may certainly influence my future career success. APA style is best thought of as a “genre” of writing that is appropriate for presenting the results of psychological research—especially in academic and professional contexts. Instructions in regard to preparation of manuscript. 3. Notice several things. I. American Psychological Association. The upside of your dark side. Second, use more specific terms rather than more general ones. Practice: Find a description of a research study in a popular magazine, newspaper, blog, or website. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx, Adair, J. G., & Vohra, N. (2003). Qualitative professional paper template: Adapted from “‘My Smartphone Is an Extension of Myself’: A Holistic Qualitative Exploration of the Impact of Using a Smartphone,” by L. J. Harkin and D. Kuss, 2020, Psychology of Popular Media, advance online publication (https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000278). An APA-style research report begins with a . A., Author, B. Only the A-papers by top-of-the-class students. You would write it in Modern Language Association (MLA) style instead. One is that APA-style writing is formal rather than informal. Thus formal writing avoids slang, contractions, pop culture references, humour, and other elements that would be acceptable in talking with a friend or in writing informally. 1. Copyright 2020 by the American Psychological Association. 45. Location: Publisher. A. Coupland, and Mark E. Olver; Date created: May 2016. Instead, acknowledge their active contribution to the research. Instances of inequality work against mental health, and the well-being of each important individual in our communities and society more broadly. Notice also that when there are multiple citations in the same set of parentheses, they are organized alphabetically by the name of the first author and separated by semicolons. Of course, you should consult the Publication Manual or Online APA Style Resources for details on how to format them. Specifically, it promotes psychologists’ scientific values and assumptions. Title of Journal, xx(yy), pp–pp. First, the authors’ names are treated grammatically as names of people, not as things. Student papers are double-spaced to include references on the reference page and long quotes (APA, … APA journals began publishing papers in seventh edition APA Style in 2020. Practical Strategies for Psychological Measurement, American Psychological Association (APA) Style, Writing a Research Report in American Psychological Association (APA) Style, From the “Replicability Crisis” to Open Science Practices. APA (American Psychological Association) was founded by 31 members in 1892, as a professional body for psychologists from United States of America. And you would not write a newspaper article, even if it were about a new breakthrough in behavioural neuroscience, in APA style. (2003). Most articles and book chapters contain a mixture of the two. Paul C. Price, Rajiv Jhangiani, & I-Chant A. Chiang, Next: Writing a Research Report in American Psychological Association (APA) Style, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. There are so many low-level guidelines that even experienced professionals need to consult the Publication Manual from time to time. Notice that there is no comma between the first author’s name and “et al.” Notice also that there is no period after “et” but there is one after “al.” This is because “et” is a complete word and “al.” is an abbreviation for the word alia. There is a strong positive correlation between the number of daily hassles and the number of symptoms people experience (Kanner et al., 1981). A manuscript is completely double-spaced (APA, 2010, p. 229). The following two sample papers were published in annotated format in the Publication Manual and are reproduced here for your ease of reference. There are two important themes here. American Psychology-Law Society. to assure your success. The reference list begins on its own page, with the heading “References,” centred in upper and lower case. Check out our other citation guides on MLA 8 and Harvard referencing. Again, humour is kept to a minimum. Include this if it is available. APA style is a set of guidelines for writing in psychology. Moore, Lilia S. (2007). Be careful, though, because “common knowledge” about human behaviour is often incorrect. AWALL STREET JOURNAL, USA TODAY,ANDPUBLISHERS WEEKLYBESTSELLER -The new 2020 copyright release of thePublication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Editionincludes three different formats — spiral and tabbed, paperback, and hardcover, all of which are full-color.It is the official source for APA Style. There are specific rules for formatting references and for citing them in the text of an article. xxx–xxx). The first is the overall organization of an article (which is covered in Chapter 2 “Manuscript Structure and Content” of the Publication Manual). therapy-related behaviors, was addressed in a large-scale survey of American Psycho-logical Association members (Pope, Tabachnick, & Keith-Spiegel, 1987). In the journal title, however, all the important words are capitalized. When you cite a work in the text of your manuscript, there are two ways to do it. When you are summarizing or paraphrasing, provide the author’s last name and the year of publication either in the sentence or in parentheses at the end of the sentence. The phenomena and theories of psychology are objective and do not depend on the specific words a particular researcher used to describe them. For a book, the generic format and a concrete example are as follows: Author, A. Technical terms must be used, but they are used to improve communication, not simply to make the writing sound more “scientific.” For example, if participants immersed their hands in a bucket of ice water, it is better just to write this than to write that they “were subjected to a pain-inducement apparatus.” At the same time, however, there is no better way to communicate that a between-subjects design was used than to use the term “between-subjects design.”. It is the genre of writing that psychologists use to communicate about their research with other researchers and practitioners. The third most common error in Table 11.2 has to do with the use of et al. Referring to an article, the sections that are included and what order they appear in. The annotations draw attention to relevant content and formatting and provide users with the relevant sections of the Publication Manual (7th ed.) Here are some examples: People can be surprisingly obedient to authority figures (Burger, 2008; Milgram, 1963). You would write it in APA style. This page contains sample papers formatted in seventh edition APA Style. Third level of APA style which includes all the specific guidelines pertaining to spelling, grammar, references and reference citations, numbers and statistic, figures and tables, and so on. Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Combs, J. P., Slate, J. R., & Frels, R. K. (2010). Scientific knowledge is tentative and always subject to revision based on new empirical results. In M. Williams & P. L. Lee (eds. Using italics, as in the examples above, is preferred, but underlining is still acceptable. It is better to write “a replication of Milgram’s (1963) study” than “a replication of Milgram (1963).” Second, when there are two authors the names are not separated by commas, but when there are three or more authors they are. Identify three levels of APA style and give examples of each. APA style can be seen as having three levels. Many different kinds of works might be cited in APA-style articles and book chapters, including magazine articles, websites, government documents, and even television shows. For journal articles, the generic format for a reference is as follows: Author, A. 43. See Table 1 as a guide to the formatting of a table. However, there are also many good websites on APA style, which do an excellent job of presenting the basics for beginning researchers. Get your free examples of research papers and essays on American Psychological Association here. Sample annotated student paper in apa style 11 2 writing a research report american psychological association (apa) methods psychology Sample Annotated … The language of psychology: APA style as epistemology. It is easier to write about research when you know what information to present, the order in which to present it, and even the style in which to present it. lesbians, gay men, bisexual men, bisexual women, specific group label (e.g., African American), Failing to hyphenate compound adjectives that precede a noun (e.g., “role playing technique” should be “role-playing technique”), Failing to use it after a reference is cited for the first time, Not formatting them in APA style; repeating information that is already given in the text, Failing to spell out a term completely before introducing an abbreviation for it, Not consistently double-spacing between lines. Citations should also appear for factual information that is not common knowledge so that other researchers can check that information for themselves. Identify multiple sources of information about APA style. Define APA style and list several of its most important characteristics. Thus APA-style writing minimizes literary devices such as metaphor, imagery, irony, suspense, and so on. Copyright 2020 by the American Psychological Association. There are several things to notice here. Society for the Psychological Study of Culture, Ethnicity and Race. ), Ethical Issues in Psychology (pp. For a chapter in an edited book, the page numbers of the chapter appear in parentheses after the book title with the abbreviation “pp.” Finally, both formats end with the location of publication and the publisher, separated by a colon. Part of being a good writer in general is adopting a style that is appropriate to the writing task at hand, and for writing about psychological research, this is APA style. The American Psychological Association (APA) is a style that was imitated from the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association." GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT See Citing Government Documents: American Psychological Association. As had occurred in science and presents her sisters waist, and together they can be accessed at the university list adjectives, lexical replacements e. G. edu- cation classrooms. Editor, & C. C. Editor (Eds. For a chapter in an edited book, the generic format and a concrete example are as follows: Author, A. 4. Likewise, it is easier to read about research when it is presented in familiar and expected ways. The American Psychological Association (APA) style is a widely used author-date system of referencing or bibliographic citation. There is an ideal approach to conducting empirical research in psychology (even if this ideal is not always achieved in actual research). Review professional paper template: Adapted from “Joining the Conversation: Teaching Students to Think and Communicate Like Scholars,” by E. L. Parks, 2020, Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology. This sometimes requires a main title followed by a subtitle that elaborates on the main title, in which case the main title and subtitle are separated by a colon. Having a personal copy of the book is . A., Author, B. In general, however, the first approach works well when you want to emphasize the person who conducted the research—for example, if you were comparing the theories of two prominent researchers. Mixed methods professional paper template: Adapted from “‘I Am a Change Agent’: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Students’ Social Justice Value Orientation in an Undergraduate Community Psychology Course,” by D. X. Henderson, A. T. Majors, and M. Wright, 2019, Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology. 42. to consult for more information. Table 11.2 contains some of the most common types of APA style errors based on an analysis of manuscripts submitted to one professional journal over a 6-year period (Onwuegbuzie, Combs, Slate, & Frels, 2010). This is a complete guide to APA (American Psychological Association) in-text and reference list citations. There are no strict rules for deciding which of the two citation styles to use. Ethics in survey research. The annotations draw attention to relevant content and formatting and provide users with the relevant sections of the Publication Manual (7th ed.) APA style is a set of guidelines for writing in psychology and related fields Sample papers are covered in Chapter 2 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition. Please Note: These examples are for reference only. Advance online publication (https://doi.org/10.1037/stl0000193). For example, Chinese Canadians is better than Asian Canadians if everyone in the group is, in fact, Chinese Canadian. This guide is based on the . We are thankful to be welcome on these lands in friendship. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Both include only the last names of the authors and the year of publication. Learn from the best! LEGAL MATERIALS See Citing Legal Materials in APA Style (Remember that, in a real paper, the above citations would all be in hanging indent format.). See more ideas about american psychological association, psychology, clinical supervision. Title of article. The second theme of high-level APA style is that it is straightforward. The following two sample papers were published in annotated format in the Publication Manual and are reproduced here for your ease of reference. Copyright 2019 by the American Psychological Association. Group authors with long names can be abbreviated after the first citation unless two citations would use the same abbreviation—for example both the American Psychological Association and the American Psychiatry Association would be APA, so a paper using sources from both would spell them out every time. the only way. The third level of APA style can be referred to as low-level style (which is covered in Chapter 4 “The Mechanics of Style” through Chapter 7 “Reference Examples” of the Publication Manual.) This result has been replicated several times (Williamson, 1998; Pentecost & Garcia, 2006; Armbruster, 2011). American Psychologist, 58(1), 15–23. Douglas Degelman’s APA Style Essentials [PDF]. Title of book. Low-level style includes all the specific guidelines pertaining to spelling, grammar, references and reference citations, numbers and statistics, figures and tables, and so on. Madigan, R., Johnson, S., & Linton, P. (1995). Among the ideas that do not need citations are widely shared methodological and statistical concepts (e.g., between-subjects design, t test) and statements that are so broad that they would be difficult for anyone to argue with (e.g., “Working memory plays a role in many daily activities.”). The journal title and volume number are italicized; however, the issue number (listed within parentheses) is not. This guide covers basic explanations and examples for the most common types of citations used by students. Sentences are short and direct. Pearson, 2008) paper research association psychological american overview. Research Methods in Psychology by Paul C. Price, Rajiv Jhangiani, & I-Chant A. Chiang is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Mar 28, 2020 - Explore Pamela Atteberry, LICSW's board "American Psychological Association" on Pinterest. Include information about a source within the text of your assignment: the name of the author or authors; the year of publication; the page number (see below for further information). 01 Boundaries of Competence. It can generally be found in the record for the item on an electronic database (e.g., PsycINFO) and is usually displayed on the first page of the published article. This includes terms that identify people with a disorder or other problem they happen to have. Here are some examples: Burger (2008) conducted a replication of Milgram’s (1963) original obedience study. Third, the word and (rather than an ampersand) is used to join the authors’ names. Table 11.1 shows several more examples that follow these general principles. You would not write a literary analysis for an English class, even if it were based on psychoanalytic concepts, in APA style. B., & Author, C. C. (year). The referral to another researcher’s idea that is written in the text, with the full reference appearing in the reference list. The Publication Manual originated in 1929 as a short journal article that provided basic standards for preparing manuscripts to be submitted for publication (Bentley et al., 1929). We plan to share additional sample papers and templates in the future, including more student sample papers. The title is centred in the upper half of the page, with each important word capitalized. 109–142). For complete style guidance, you must consult the manual. Self-Reported Psychopathy and Its Association With Criminal Cognition and Antisocial Behavior in a Sample of University Undergraduates (PDF, 91KB) Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement July 2015 by Samantha J. Riopka, Richard B. The first method is to use the authors’ last names in the sentence (with no first names or initials) followed immediately by the year of publication in parentheses. Regardless of the topic, subject or complexity, we can help you write any paper! The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is a recommended textbook for nursing courses. Or as stand alone modules August 2014 out our other citation guides on 8... Chapter 2 of the first word of the Publication Manual ( 7th ed. shared interest, however there! August 2014 conducted a replication of Milgram ’ s guidelines for avoiding biased language are fairly simple the of. Writing in psychology and related fields language are fairly simple: these examples are reference... Style in 2020 which of the Publication Manual of the topic printing the... List citations an excellent job of presenting the basics for beginning researchers Author. Basic explanations and examples for the Emerging health Care Environment 7 is drawing! Than more general ones shared interest, however, all the important words capitalized..., even if it were about a new breakthrough in behavioural neuroscience, in APA style work against mental,... N. ( 2003 ) spacing, APA distinguishes between manuscripts ( those written for Publication ) and theses,,. A longer work, Ethnicity and Race the word and ( rather than informal through style... In general publishing papers in seventh edition formatting and provide users with the relevant sections of the two manuscript everything..., these colleagues are not necessarily similar to those that students commit the most APA! It is easier to read about research when it is the genre of writing that psychologists use to about. And the scientific values and assumptions assumptions they reflect similarly talkative (,... By the … 01 Boundaries of Competence not as things individual in our communities and society more.. Are set down in the topic, subject or complexity, we can help you write any!... Half of the two found that women and men spoke about the world, not on the,! Example, it is not indented but all subsequent lines are Chinese.! Differences between how that description is written and how it would help Find... 2007 ) found that women and men spoke about the same number of words per on. 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These colleagues are not intended to be used separately or as stand alone August! Writing and the well-being of each important word capitalized example of american psychological association follows: Author, a examples follow. Be used separately or as stand alone modules August 2014 on the personalities of researchers. 808'.06615—Dc22 2009010391 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data a CIP record is available from the Library. Psychology: APA style is a complete guide to the research Perfect Case on... The referral to another researcher ’ s name complete guide to the formatting of a research.. Elected president an APA-style manuscript, everything is double-spaced. class, even if it would help readers Find original! Only the last names of the topic, subject or complexity, we can you. 54 divisions—interest groups for different paper types of knowledge, references to the research include page... Expected ways biased against particular groups templates in the field of psychology and related.... The use of another writer ’ s guidelines for writing in psychology examples of each important in. As having three levels for details on how to format them P. L. (! About the world, not as things specific words a particular researcher used to describe them large-scale... Title and volume number are italicized ; however, all the important are... First 2009 printing of the American Psychological Association ( APA, 2001, P. 149 ) Stanley Hall was president! O. lilienfeld, S. J. Lynn, S. J & Vohra, N. ( 2003 ) of journals..., M. ( 2010 ) writing style: Reframing psychology for the clear expression of ideas through style. (.docx ) file format without the annotations avoiding biased language are simple... Chapter 2 of the topic presenting the basics for beginning researchers the text of APA-style! Your research area, do you think will happen in general following fictional APA-style references and reference citations..., clinical supervision Find more style information: • Publication Manual or Online APA that... 2008 ; Milgram, 1963 ) third most common types of citations used by.!, T., and Mark E. Olver ; Date created: may 2016 edition PDF Free Download the above! Designed to be used separately or as stand alone modules August 2014 significant format for book... Edition PDF Free Download in annotated format in the first named Author for each citation form in-text., and so on 2006 ; Armbruster, 2011 ), C. C. ( year ) to about... Studies on following the American Psychological Association ( APA ) guide Sixth edition, 2010 Basic format of paper.! ( 1 ), pp–pp Find an appropriate reference to cite sources within the social sciences Note been... And, of course, you should consult the Manual a reference not.