Before formally approving a congregation and its constitutions, the Holy See is accustomed to give its commendation first to the intentions of its founders and the purpose of the foundation, and then to the congregation itself. In 2015, I began what was to become a long-term project exploring the lives of nuns in the Holy Hearts of Jesus and Mary convent in Rome. The same decree gives to confessors the exclusive right of regulating the communions of the nuns, who have the privilege of communicating daily since the decree "Sacra Tridentina" of 20 December, 1905 (see "Periodicade Religiosis", n. 110, vol. This Catholic "Order of Preachers" founded by Dominic about 1206 follows the rule of Augustine. In case of a tie, the superior has a casting vote. Benedict XIV, by his Bull "Pastoralis" of 5 August, 1748, insisted on the appointment of a confessor extraordinary, and also on the provision of facilities for sick nuns. Boniface VII (1294-1309) by his constitution "Periculoso", inserted in Canon Law [c. un, De statu regularium, in VI (III, 16)] made it an inviolable law for all professed nuns; and the Council of Trent (sess. The secretary general keeps the minutes of proceedings, and has charge of the archives. Some of the congregations are confined to one diocese, while others extend to several dioceses: in the latter case, each diocesan ordinary has under him the houses in his dioceses with power to authorize or suppress them. The counsellors general assist the superior general with their advice, and in many mattes the consent of the majority is required. 65, 1899); SCHIEWIETZ, Das morgenlandische Monchtum (Mainz, 1904); SPREITZENHOFEZ, Die Entwicklung des alten monchtums in Italien von seiner ersten Anfangen bis zum Auftreten des h. Benedict (Vienna, 1894); THOMASSIN, Vetus et nova Ecclesiae disciplina, I, 1, 3; WILPERT, Die Gottgeweihten Jungfrauen in der ersten Jahrhunderten der Kirche (Freiburg im Br., 1892); Doctrinal, besides the general works of the classical authors: BASTIEN, Directoire canonique a l'usage des Congregations a voeux simples (Maredsous, 1911); BATTANDIER, Guide canonique pour les Constitutions des Instituts a voeux simples (4th ed., Paris, 1908); BOUIX, Tractatus de iure regularium (2 vols., Paris, 1856); PELLIZARIUS, Tractatus de Monialibus (1761); PIAT, Praelectiones iuris Regularium (2 vol., Tournai, 1898); ROTARIUS, Theologia moralis regularum, 3 vols. The divine office contains several prayer times each day including midnight, dawn, 6am, 9am, noon, 3pm, 6pm and 9pm. They profess poverty, celibacy, and obedience and divide their time between contemplation in their community and work in the outside world. Dedicated to the memory of women religious throughout the ages. Before formally approving a congregation and its constitutions, the Holy See is accustomed to give its commendation first to the intentions of its founders and the purpose of the foundation, and then to the congregation itself. Cloistered sisters are usually called nuns; loosely speaking, all sisters are often called nuns. "The Poor Clare Nuns constitute the second branch of the Franciscan Order, founded in the thirteenth century by Saint Clare under the inspiration and guidance of Saint Francis of Assisi. Notwithstanding that pontifical intervention, the congregation remains diocesan. These services should be given only in exceptional circumstances. Diocesan congregations A council should at once be appointed if there is none already existing (cf. Monastic Orders of Monks and Nuns in Major Religions. This strictness led to the foundation of pious associations called secular because they had no perpetual vows, and leading a common life intended for their own personal sanctification and the practice of charity, e.g. (f) In principle, the prelate of the First Order is without authority over the nuns. There are many nuns in the United States, about 57,000 of them, and most of them are very good nuns. Other orders fought with the Vatican for recognition of validity; in trying to prove that nuns could performs community service while remaining devout, the sisters of such orders were often denounced or excommunicated. Some of the orders which traditionally practice papal cloister are: Carmelite Nuns, Poor Clares, Dominican Nuns, Visitandines, Holy Spirit Adoration Sisters, and Handmaids of the Precious Blood. The Carmelites and the Hermits of St. Augustine also had corresponding orders of women; and the same was the case with the Clerks Regular dating from the sixteenth century, except the Society of Jesus. In all that concerns communions and direction of conscience, the decrees "Quem ad modum" and "Sacra Tridentina" apply to these congregations as well as to monasteries of nuns. Other monasteries allowed the nuns to go in and out. ); BUTLER, The Lausiac Hist. The nuns of Egypt and Syria cut their hair, a practice not introduced until later into the West. Without having jurisdiction, the abbess exercises authority over all in the house, and commands in virtue of their vows. Over eight hundred years ago, a poor man named Francis Bernadone preached the holy Gospel to a young noblewoman, Clare Offreduccio. They were sometimes admitted among the deaconesses for the baptism of adult women and to exercise the functions which St. Paul had reserved for widows of sixty years. If there are no provinces, the general chapter includes (besides those mentioned above) all superiors of houses containing more than twelve nuns, accompanied by one religious under perpetual vows elected by all the professed sisters (including those under temporary vows) of such houses. At the head of the community is a superior often called the abbess, appointed for life by the chapter, at least outside Italy, for in Italy, and especially in the two Sicilies, the constitution "Exposcit debitum" (1 January, 1583) of Gregory XIII requires that hey should be re-elected every three years (see "Periodicade Religiosis", n. 420, vol. The men there made her working life hell; sexism and harassment made her loathe going to work. Benedicti, De antiquis monachorum ritibus; PARGOIRE, Les debuts du monachisme a Constantinople in Revue des uestions historiques (vol. Once a man has been ordained, he is spiritually changed, which is the origin of the saying, "Once a priest, always a priest." She may not resign her office except with the consent of the Sacred Congregation, which has the power to depose her. A nun during a quiet moment of prayer. The second decree of commendation has the effect of bringing the congregation into the number of those which are governed by pontifical law, and especially by the second part of the constitution "Conditae". The congregations are constituted on the model of the newer religious orders, that is to say they group several houses, each governed by a local superior, under the indirect authority of a superior general; many, but not all, are divided into provinces. These work and live in a monastery and recite the divine office daily. 19, 52, the Holy See no longer approves of double foundations, which establish a certain subordination of the sisters to similar congregations of men. 4, 158). In the absence of any other formal direction, the Holy See is understood to delegate to the bishop the annual visitation of monasteries immediately subject to the pope, to the exclusion of other superiors. Even admission to the grated parlor is not free, and interviews with regulars are subject to stringent rules. Other rules followed, written by Basil of Caesarea (330-379), Benedict of Nursia (480-543), and Francis of Assisi (1181-1226). This strictness led to the foundation of pious associations called secular because they had no perpetual vows, and leading a common life intended for their own personal sanctification and the practice of charity, e.g. These holy women live out their vows of poverty, chastity and obedience in religious communities. https://www.learnreligions.com/monastic-orders-of-monks-and-nuns-700047 She governs the congregation according to the approved constitutions, and is bound to make a visitation either personally or by a deputy, to exercise a general control over the temporal administration, and to submit to the Sacred Congregation an official report countersigned by the ordinary of the principal house. (1st vol., 3nd ed., 1907; 2nd vol., 4th ed., 1910); De Religiosis et Missionariis Periodica, ab anna 1905. Nuns are generally obliged to recite the Divine office, like religious orders of men; but the Visitandines and some monasteries of Ursulines recite only the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin, even in choir. 5, 98). These do not always fulfil all the essential conditions of the religious state. letter of 2 September, 1864, to the Archbishop of Baltimore) that in the United States nuns were under simple vows only, except the Visitandines of Georgetown, Mobile, Kaskaskia, St. Louis, and Baltimore, who made solemn profession by virtue of special rescripts. 62", Migne, "P.L. It includes Catholic priests, brothers, and sisters. Except in the case of a pontifical indult placing them in subjection to a first order these nuns are bound by the following rules: (a) The bishop has full jurisdiction over them; he may dispense from all constitutions not reserved to the Holy See, and from particular impediments to admission, but may not modify the constitutions. 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