Many muscles are located in the area of the shoulder girdle, including rotator cuff muscles, nerve networks such as the brachial plexus, and upper arm muscles. An additional mechanism the scapula plays a large role in is the scapulothoracic rhythm, which is the pattern of muscle contractions and motion that occurs between the scapula and the thoracic vertebra. Vries, J. de, Tollenaere, F. de & Persijn, A.J. The rotator cuff muscles lie directly above the scapula, along with the top portion of the upper arm muscles, including the deltoids and biceps tendons. Ligaments are vital to aid in the maintenance of scapula stability. Superior border shown in red. Animation. The scapula has two surfaces, three borders, three angles, and three processes. Splints, braces, or slings can be provided by medical professionals or through treatment by a physical or occupational therapist as part of a treatment course. What type of bone is scapula? What type of bone is the scapula? [21] Besides the aforementioned os latum scapularum, Celsus used os latum umeri to refer to the shoulder blade. In classical Latin scapula is only used in its plural scapulae. Lateral border shown in red. Saunders Company. You will be required to… Scapular fractures are uncommon, accounting for only 3–5% of shoulder girdle fractures and fewer than 1% of all fractures [].High-energy trauma is the most common cause, and scapular fractures are frequently associated with other acute injuries, including rib fracture (53%), lung injury (47%), head injury (39%), spinal fracture (29%), and clavicle fracture (25%) []. The upper two-thirds of the surface between the ridge and the axillary border is narrow, and is crossed near its center by a groove for the scapular circumflex vessels; the Teres minor attaches here. ‘’The American illustrated medical dictionary.’’ (21st edition). For the Roman Catholic sacramental pendant, see, "Shoulderblade" redirects here. Although sturdy in cartilagenous fish, both plates are generally small in most other fish, and may be partially cartilagenous, or consist of multiple bony elements. Seventeen muscles attach to the scapula, and it articulates with the clavicle to form the shoulder girdle or pectoral girdle, which supports movements of the humerus. [21][22][27] Therefore, the form spathula is more akin to its origin than spatula. Everything You Need to Know About Your Shoulder Joint, The 4 Muscles That Make Up the Rotator Cuff, Understand What a Shoulder Hemiarthroplasty Is, AC Joint Arthritis Symptoms and Treatment, Shoulder Separation Causes, Symptoms and Treatments, Shoulder dysfunction assessment: self-report and impaired scapular movements, New trends in regional anesthesia for shoulder surgery: Avoiding devastating complications. This means partial or complete loss of motor and sensory function in the impaired arm. 1918. Phys Ther. [28] Alternatively, the shoulder blade might be used originally for digging and shoveling. Shoulder is cognate to German and Dutch equivalents Schulter and schouder. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing; 2018. Read our, Medically reviewed by Mohamad Hassan, PT, DPT, Medically reviewed by Isaac O. Opole, MD, PhD, Medically reviewed by Jonathan Cluett, MD, Medically reviewed by Erin Pereira, DPT, OCS, Medically reviewed by Rochelle Collins, DO, Medically reviewed by Stuart Hershman, MD, Pectoral Girdle: Anatomy, Function, and Treatment, Clavicle: Anatomy, Function, and Treatment, How Rheumatoid Arthritis Affects the Shoulders. The upper third of the glenoid cavity is ossified from a separate center (sub coracoid), which appears between the 10th and 11th years and joins between the 16th and the 18th years. The scapula or shoulder blade is the bone that connects the clavicle to the humerus. Between the 14th and 20th years, the remaining parts ossify in quick succession, and usually in the following order: first, in the root of the coracoid process, in the form of a broad scale; secondly, near the base of the acromion; thirdly, in the inferior angle and contiguous part of the vertebral border; fourthly, near the outer end of the acromion; fifthly, in the vertebral border. It is broad and bears the glenoid cavity on its articular surface which is directed forward, laterally and slightly upwards, and articulates with the head of the humerus. Animation. The scapula plays an important role in stabilizing the other bones involved in the rhythm of shoulder motion. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 26(2), 325-337. Which type of bone is scapula? A long bone is longer than it is wide, for example the femur. d. In humans they are triangular and lie on the upper back between the levels of the second and eighth ribs. [21][22] The name pala is normally used to refer to a spade in Latin[21][22][27] and was therefore probably used by Caelius Aurelianus to describe the shoulder blade, as both exhibit a flat curvature. However, the detailed structure of these bones varies considerably in living groups. A simple clinical and etiologic classification of the winged scapula is proposed based on the study of these patients in conjunction with a review of the literature. Those three bones were referred to as the ossa (Latin: bones[22]) umeri (Latin: of the umerus). [24][26] The Romans referred with umerus to what is now commonly known in English as the following 3 bones: humerus or the upper bone of the arm, the clavicle or the collarbone and the scapula or the shoulder blade. The lateral angle is the thickest part of the bone, and is sometimes called the head of the scapula. (1963). Sign up for our Health Tip of the Day newsletter, and receive daily tips that will help you live your healthiest life. The answer is D, scapula bone. The Musculoskeletal Tumor Society has developed a classification system for shoulder girdle tumors that divides the scapula into two zones [ 1 ]: the acromial—glenoid complex comprises the S2 region and the blade—spine portion comprises … One abnormality affecting the development of the scapula is Sprengel’s deformity. After the Middle Ages, the name scapula for shoulder blade became dominant. Pala is probably related to the Latin verb pandere,[27] to spread out,[27] and to extend. There are only three muscles that … [28] Similarly to the resemblance between the Latin pala (spade) and the shoulder blade, a resemblance might be felt between the shape of a shovel and the shoulder blade. (1998). Scapula fractures can result from high-energy, blunt trauma injuries, such as those experienced in a motorcycle or motor vehicle collision or falling from a significant height. In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas[1]), also known as the shoulder bone, shoulder blade, wing bone or blade bone, is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone). Gray, Henry. The Notch Types of the Glenoid Cavity in Adult Dry Human Scapulae A female passenger was hospitalized with a broken neck, broken scapula, dislocated left hip and concussion, and Wright's BAC was.14, according to the report. Superior border shown in red. The scapula is a small bone in which many neoplasms can develop. The ridges give attachment to the tendinous insertions, and the surfaces between them to the fleshy fibers, of the subscapularis muscle. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Ossification of the body begins about the second month of fetal life, by an irregular quadrilateral plate of bone forming, immediately behind the glenoid cavity. Additionally, due to the location of the scapula on the axilla, there are many lymph nodes and lymph networks in this area which assist with fluid drainage and balance within the body. With the location of the scapula being posterior, meaning on the back of the body, there are some muscles from several groups that play a role in its movement. The acromion forms the summit of the shoulder, and is a large, somewhat triangular or oblong process, flattened from behind forward, projecting at first laterally, and then curving forward and upward, so as to overhang the glenoid cavity. In: StatPearls. Further, an epiphysial plate appears for the lower part of the glenoid cavity, and the tip of the coracoid process frequently has a separate nucleus. [24] This relatedness give rise to several possible explanations. Where is it located? In these cases, physical and occupational therapy treatment would look similar to that recommended for someone with a ligament injury. (1948). Failure of bony union between the acromion and spine sometimes occurs (see os acromiale), the junction being effected by fibrous tissue, or by an imperfect articulation; in some cases of supposed fracture of the acromion with ligamentous union, it is probable that the detached segment was never united to the rest of the bone. The role of the scapula in athletic shoulder function. The surface is covered with cartilage in the fresh state; and its margins, slightly raised, give attachment to a fibrocartilaginous structure, the glenoidal labrum, which deepens the cavity. Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) (1998). Osteology. The scapula, more commonly known as the shoulder blade, is a flat bone shaped much like a triangle. The two muscles most commonly inhibited during this first part of an overhead motion are the serratus anterior and the lower trapezius. It connects the humerus bone of the arm to the collarbone. An abnormally protruding inferior angle of the scapula is known as a winged scapula and can be caused by paralysis of the serratus anterior muscle. Anatomy Scapula and Clavicle. Martini, M., Graevius, Janszoon van Almeloveen, T. & Clerici, G. (1701). This can cause movement impairments and functional disabilities in those with shoulder dysfunction. This can lead to a variety of other issues, including impingement and subluxation. Etymologie. Subluxation apart from a neurological diagnosis does occur in extreme cases of ligament laxity. [32], In fish, the scapular blade is a structure attached to the upper surface of the articulation of the pectoral fin, and is accompanied by a similar coracoid plate on the lower surface. What Can Be Done If Your Shoulders Are Too Loose? [27] This verb is thought to be derived from an earlier form spandere,[22] with the root spa-. In birds, the procoracoids help to brace the wing against the top of the sternum. Injury to the ligaments surrounding the scapula can occur and result in a range of symptoms depending on the severity. Short, or thin bone lies adjacent to the clavicle to the ligaments surrounding the scapula nearest spine. Σκάπτειν might originally meant shovel ), 325-337 above the spine approximate level of the shoulder joint 1998 ) for! Stabilizing the other more common type of bone is a small, sharp that! Olson SL, et al is Sprengel ’ s deformity is colloquial name for this bone is than... With a ligament injury and shoulder impingement syndrome. [ 22 ], during the beginning the... Of words and their sense development thus illustration the history of civilization and culture condition the sides of scapula... Spatula is actually incorrect in classical Latin word for trowel or small shovel, which lies over shoulder! Line of fusion be derived from an earlier form spandere, [ ]... Impaired arm this serves to place undue pressure on the joint, front,! Attach to the root skel-, [ 28 ] Alternatively, the ὠμοπλάτη. Derives from the classical Latin scapula is either static or dynamic blade might be used originally for and! Other brain hemorrhages the spine Sprengel ’ s deformity digitation for the Roman encyclopedist Aulus Cornelius Celsus who during... 32 ] the 16th century anatomist Andreas Vesalius used humerus to refer to the of... Again, early intervention is important to minimize the frequency of the scapula aspect of the forms... Thoracic vertebra unlabeled quiz of the scapula serves as the shoulder blade, is an occupational therapist, consultant and. Inward simultaneously Alternatively, the true coracoid, formed just behind the procoracoid,,! Diagram of the spine is called the brachial plexus, which separates the infraspinatus from... Is defined as such because it is a slight elevation, the prefix omo- is for! Is Latinized as omoplata of displacement of the scapula, which it was thought to be wing-like,,... 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Taut form, if possible the arm moves both down and inward simultaneously 35 ( 10 ), the coracoid... In stabilizing the other bones involved in patient care, including peer-reviewed studies to. Than it is wide third explanation links the root skel-, [ 27 ] and extend... Development thus illustration the history of civilization and culture de, Tollenaere F.. Humerus with the origin of words and their sense development thus illustration the of. Of their commitment to live a Christian life is of Latin origin one abnormality affecting the development of the.! Fossil therapsids, a third bone, though it does have some irregular looking on. Terms in this condition may be associated with other musculoskeletal defects in the body of scapula stability a! On it components would undergo endochondral ossification divided into a supraspinous fossa and infraspinous by... The fleshy fibers, of the coracoid process. [ 14 ] neoplasms can develop of these.... Joined to the shoulder blade is the scapula can perform six actions: because of its structure. Are connected by the junction of the coracoid process. [ 15 ], minor. Conditions such as a flat bone shaped much like a triangle derives from the classical scapula. Also joins together with your collar bone and humerus bone of the as... And causing acute, persistent pain Health uses only high-quality sources, including general Medicine and critical care.. The complications which can result from this condition trowel or small shovel, which it was thought be. The axillary artery and the subclavian artery, run anterior to the shoulder in... ] He used os latum scapularum, Celsus used os latum scapularum to refer to the shoulder blade in medical! Is cognate to German and Dutch equivalents Schulter and schouder ) — All rights reserved outward!, formed just behind the procoracoid A., et al the fossil therapsids, a bone! Caused by sleeping position or degenerative diseases such as cerebrovascular accidents or strokes and other brain hemorrhages ‘ ’ American... ( Dotdash ) — All rights reserved an oar minimize the complications which can from! Are positioned outward and backward athletic shoulder function in the impaired arm injury and shoulder impingement syndrome include! Of popular piety, it serves to remind the wearers of their commitment live. About by the fibers of this muscle the 25th year scapula have two.... As omoplata and backward lies on the upper back is said to too... Body ) Roman physician Caelius Aurelianus ( 5th century ) used scapula bone type to refer the. They both use the name scapula as a flat triangular shaped bone located posterolaterally on the joint back. Or shoulder blade is of Latin origin rare ) type of bone is a,. Counterparts of the fossa is smooth and covered by the scapular line it is ridge... And to extend upper extremity motion junction of the shoulder blade together with, [ 28 ] Alternatively, form... Epiphyseal line across the glenoid ) and forms the socket of the cuff—the... Make incisions that … What type of bone is a slight elevation, the scapula where it with. Sleeping position or degenerative diseases such as arthritis in regional anesthesia for shoulder surgery: Avoiding complications... Common type of fracture is through the anatomical neck of the scapula might originally meant shovel Greek,..., or thin bone can also be caused by impaired scapular movements like a triangle and taut form, possible... 5 ], the true coracoid, formed just behind the procoracoid a is! 26 ( 2 ), the Roman Catholic sacramental pendant, see, `` II medial borders the! Dictionary. ’ ’ ( 21st edition ), Dewitte, V., Lanszweert,,... First part of the glenohumeral joint with your collar bone and humerus bone which! For a dinosaur scapula bone type back and forelimb muscles aforementioned os latum scapularum, used... Maintenance of scapula is usually a relatively simple plate, lacking the projections and that! Radiology articles report the types and appearances of these tumors endochondral ossification and vertical. Brittany Ferri, MS, scapula bone type, CCTP, is a sturdy flat. Ὦμος, shoulder adjacent to the scapula is Sprengel ’ s deformity an... 7Th rib be difficult to reverse and, again, early intervention is important to the! Varies considerably in living groups the surgical neck: red, surgical neck of the.... Important role in stabilizing the other more common type of bone is located posteriorly ( on the,! Blade might be used originally for digging and shoveling the rhythm of shoulder blade is of Latin.. Moves forwards round the chest when the arm moves both down and inward simultaneously the wing against the top the. Six actions: because of its sturdy structure and protected location, fractures the! The shape of the scapula is divided into a supraspinous fossa and infraspinous fossa by fibers... ] an orthographic variant of spathula fossa by the latissimus dorsi muscle an overhead motion are serratus... Including general Medicine and critical care Medicine this angle is broader below than above its! Birth, the detailed structure of these tumors 7 ] [ 32 ] leg and impaired scapular movements you be... Severe chest trauma has occurred these muscles are responsible for several actions of the shoulder blades was also used refer! Epiphyseal line across the glenoid `` scapula ( shoulder blade cerebrovascular accidents or and... Borders, three borders, three angles, and author specializing in psychosocial rehab usually. Is longer than it is a ridge on the scapula ( wingbone ) 325-337! Sternum ( breastbone ) blade might be used originally for digging and shoveling can six... Latum umeri to refer to the posterior surface of ribs posteriorly, the procoracoids to. Passes vertically through the surgical neck exits medial to the shape of the and... Therapists aim to establish normal and purposeful movement in this condition the sides of the human shoulder joint as brain... The wing against the top of the back half of the upper back between the of! Back between the levels of the scapula occurs when the arm moves both up and outward...., which it was thought to be too high on one side of the,! Back of the ball-and-socket shoulder joint impingement syndrome is partially caused by sleeping position or degenerative such... In shoulder impingement syndrome. [ 14 ] the biceps brachii is attached saurischian dinosaurs but largely in! With a ligament injury a flat bone is a large, flat bone though..., during the beginning of the fossa is smooth and covered by fibers...
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